Thursday, July 9, 2009

The nobele Laureates from India

Nobel Prize - an annual award for outstanding contributions to chemistry or physics or physiology and medicine or literature or economics or peace.

Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been awarded annually as per Alfred Nobel's last will and testament.  It is an international award administered by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm, Sweden. Indians have always shown their untapped potential and have achieved Nobel prize in every field. Even though they may not have facilities and luxuries at par with the likes of USA, Britain and other big social economies but the talent, hard work and skill here is unfathomed.

Nobel Prize winners from India are with due respect enlisted below, these are great people from India who showed the world the untapped potential India has,

RABINDRANATH TAGORE(1861 – 1941) - India’s Poet Laureate   

  • Nobel Prize for Literature (1913)
  • Popularly known as Gurudev, India's most famous writer and poet was awarded the Nobel Prize in recognition of his work Geetanjali, a collection of poems, in 1913. Tagore was also involved in teaching. In 1901 he founded the famous Santiniketan which later came to be known as Vishwabharati University.
  • He became Asia's first Nobel laureate when he won the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature.
  • Tagore wrote many love lyrics. Geetanjali and Sadhana are among his important works.

The poet, dramatist and novelist is also the author of India’s National Anthem.

CHANDRASHEKAR VENKATA RAMAN(1888-1970) - recognized for his work on the molecular scattering of light 

  • Nobel Prize for Physics (1930)
  • Born at Thiruvanaikkaval in Tamil Nadu, Raman studied at Presidency College, Madras. Later, he served as Professor of Physics at Calcutta University. C.V. Raman won the Nobel Prize for an important research in the field of optics (light). Raman had found that diffused light contained rays of other wavelengths-what is now popularly known as Raman Effect.
  • In 1954 he was awarded the Bharat Ratna. He was also awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1957.
  • His theory discovered in 1928 explains the change in the frequency of light passing through a transparent medium.

India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman Effect in 1928.


  • The Nobel Prize for Medicine (1968)
  • Hargobind Khorana was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968. Of Indian origin, Dr Khorana was born in Raipur, Punjab (now in Pakistan). He took his doctoral degree in Chemistry from Liverpool University and joined the University of Wisconsin as a Faculty Member in 1960.
  • His major breakthrough in the field of Medicine—interpreting the genetic code and analyzing its function in protein synthesis—fetched him the Nobel Prize
  • In 1970 Khorana became the Alfred Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology  where he worked until retiring in 2007. 

He is a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute, and currently holds Professor Emeritus status at MIT.

MOTHER TERESA  (1910-1997)

  • The Nobel Peace Prize (1979)
  • The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Mother Teresa in 1979 - A  Roman Catholic nun with Indian citizenship who founded the Missionaries of charity in Kolkata (Calcutta), India in 1950.
  • Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu at Skopje, now in Yugoslavia. She wanted to become a nun and joined the Irish order of the Sisters of Loretto (at Dublin) in 1928. It is as a nun that Agnes came Calcutta in 1929. Here she was extremely touched by the misery of the poor and the sick. She decided to dedicate her life to serving them. She then founded a group of similar minded people called the Missionaries of Charity and set up Nirmal Hriday  (meaning Pure Heart) a center where she took care of the dying, the lepers and other people who had been left alone on the streets of Calcutta to die. Today her group has centers all over the world


  • The Nobel Prize for Physics (1983)
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his studies on the physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. 
  • Dr S. Chandrashekar is an Indian-born astrophysicist (a branch of astronomy or the study of space). After studying at the Presidency College in Madras, Dr. Chandrasekhar went to the United States for work and settled there. He has written many books on his field Astrophysics and Stellar Dynamics. He developed a theory on white dwarf stars forecasts the limit of mass that dwarf stars can have. This limit is known as the Chandrashekar Limit. His theory also explains the final stages of the evolution of stars.

Dr. Chandrashekar is the nephew of another Nobel Prize winner Sir C.V. Raman.

AMARTYA SEN (b-1933) 

  • Nobel Prize for Economics (1998)
  • Prof. Amartya Sen is the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Economics for the year 1998
  • He is one of the most respected economics thinkers in the world. He is also an excellent teacher. He won the Nobel for his work in the area of economic theory. Some of his most important work is in the areas of poverty, democracy, development and social welfare.
  • The ‘impossibility theorem’ suggested earlier by Kenneth Arrow states that it was not possible to aggregate individual choices into a satisfactory choice for society as a whole. Prof. Sen showed mathematically that societies could find ways to alleviate such a poor outcome.

Prof. Amartya Sen is the first Asian to win the Economics Nobel.

Other Nobel laureates having linked to India

RUDYARD KIPLING (1865-1936) 

  • Nobel prize in Literature (1907)
  • He was a British author and poet. Born in Bombay, British India.
  • In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English language writer to receive the prize, and to date he remains its youngest recipient.
  • British writer, Rudyard Kipling wrote novels, poems and short stories — mostly set in India and Burma (now known as Myanmar). He was the Nobel Prize Laureate in Literature "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration, which characterize the creations of this world-famous author."

He is best known for his works of fiction The Jungle Book (1894) (a collection of stories)

Saturday, July 4, 2009

Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose

Jagdish Chandra Bose was born on November 30, 1858 in Mymensingh (now in Bangladesh). He was a Bengali polymath: a physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, and writer of science fiction. He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made very significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.

He is considered one of the fathers of radio science, and is also considered the father of Bengali science fiction. He was the first from the Indian subcontinent to get a US patent, in 1904. It was Jagadish Chandra Bose, who explained that plants also suffer pain like us. Though he worked in other fields of science, he is best known for his research into the life of plants.

He had his early education in village school in Bengal medium. In 1869, Jagadish Chandra Bose was sent to Calcutta to learn English and was educated at St.Xavier's School and College. He was a brilliant student. He passed the B.A. in physical sciences in 1879. He was appointed professor of physical science at Presidency College, Calcutta, in 1885 and retained this post until 1915. In 1917 he founded and became director of the Bose Research Institute, Calcutta. He was knighted in 1917 and in 1920 became the first Indian to be elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

His most famous work concerned his investigations into plant physiology and the similarities between the behavioral response of plant and animal tissue. By devising extremely sensitive instruments he was able to demonstrate the minute movements of plants to external stimuli and to measure their rate of growth.

Another of Bose's amazing achievements was his invention of the 'crescograph'. The crescograph was an electrical instrument that could measure the growth of a plant accurately.

JC Bose demonstrated the existence and propaganda of wireless waves in 1885. His work on devices for receiving the polarization of electric waves was later exploited by Marconi who designed a long distance radio signalling device.

Sir J. C. Bose holds the first patent worldwide to invent a solid-state diode detector to detect EM waves. The detector was built using a galena crystal. He worked at millimeter wavelengths which were almost nonexistent for nearly 50 years. J.C. Bose was at least this much ahead of his time.

Bose also wrote a number of books and research papers based on his work and findings in both English and Bengali. Several were translated into other European languages too.

Bose was honoured both in India and outside for his contributions to science. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on May 13, 1920, becoming the first Indian to be honoured by the Royal Society in the field of Science.

Suffering from diabetes and high blood pressure, J.C. Bose passed away on November 23, 1937 at the age of 79.

Bose’s place in history has now been re-evaluated, and he is credited with the invention of the first wireless detection device and the discovery of millimetre length electromagnetic waves and considered a pioneer in the field of biophysics.

Many of his instruments are still on display and remain largely usable now, over 100 years later. They include various antennas, polarisers, and waveguides, which remain in use in modern forms today.

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