Thursday, July 26, 2012

Indian National Emblem

The emblem of India is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Sarnath Museum. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where the Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation. The National emblem is thus symbolic of contemporary India's reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill. The national emblem of India was adapted by the Government of India on 26th January1950.
In the original Sarnath capital(which is currently situated in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh) there are four Asiatic lions standing back to back - symbolizing power, courage, pride and confidence - mounted on a circular abacus. The abacus is girded with a frieze of sculptures in high relief of an elephant (of the east), a horse (of the south), a bull (of the west), and a lion (of the north), separated by intervening wheels, over a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).
In the emblem adopted by the government in 1950 only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus, with a bull on the right and a galloping horse on the left, and outlines of Dharma Chakras on the extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus beneath the abacus has been omitted. The word Satyameva Jayate (truth alone triumphs) have been inscribed in Devanagari script.
The emblem forms a part of the official letterhead of the Government of India, and appears on all Indian currency as well. It also sometimes functions as the national emblem of India in many places and appears prominently on the diplomatic and national Passport of the Republic of India.
It is a symbol of independent India's identity and sovereignty. 

                                                                                                               I don’t claim the information to be my own. The information is compiled from different sources

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Indian Armed Forces

The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of India. They consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Indian Coast Guard, supported by Paramilitary forces (Assam Rifles and Special Frontier Force) and various inter-service institutions such as the Strategic Forces Command. The Supreme Command of the Indian Armed Forces vests in the President. The Indian Armed Forces are under the management of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), which is led by the Union Cabinet Minister of Defense. The headquarters of the Indian Armed Forces is in New Delhi, the capital city of India. As of 2010, the Indian Armed Forces have a combined strength of 1,325,000 active personnel and 1,155,000 reserve personnel. In addition, there are approximately 2,289,000 paramilitary personnel, making it one of the world's largest military forces
The Armed Forces have six main tasks:
  •         To assert the territorial integrity of India.
  •         To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation.
  •        To send own amphibious warfare equipment to take the battle to enemy shores.
  •        Cold Start which means Indian Armed Forces being able to quickly mobilise and take offensive        actions without crossing the enemy's nuclear-use threshold.
  •        To support the civil community in case of disasters (e.g. flooding).
  •        Participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations in consonance with India’s commitment to the United Nations Charter.
The earliest mention of Indian Army is found in the ancient texts and scriptures, including the Vedas and the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. History of Indian army during British rule depicts that it became more structured. During the reign of the emperors, the loyalty of the soldiers laid with their kings and during later periods, this entire concept underwent sea changes. This mainly occurred due to the rise of the concept of nation.
Indian Army : The basic responsibility of the Army is to safeguard the territorial integrity of the nation against external aggression. The Indian Army, as we know it today became operational after the Country gained independence from British colonialism. The force is headed by the Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army. The Indian Army has seen military action during the First Kashmir War, Operation Polo, the Sino-Indian War, the Second Kashmir War, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Sri Lankan Civil War and the Kargil War. Currently, the Indian army has dedicated one brigade of troops to the UN's standby arrangements. The Army is often required to assist the civil administration during internal security disturbances and in the maintenance of law and order, in organising relief operations during natural calamities like floods, earthquakes and cyclones and in the maintenance of essential services.
Indian Navy : The foundation of the modern Indian Navy was laid in the seventeenth century when the East India Company had established a maritime force, thereby graduating in time to the establishment of the Royal Indian Navy in 1934. With 58,350 men and women, including 7,000 personnel of Indian naval air arm, 1,200 Marine Commandos (MARCOS) and 1,000 personnel of the Sagar Prahari Bal, it is one of the world's largest navy. The navy is under the command of the Chief of the naval staff – an Admiral. The Indian navy is deployed under three area commands, each headed by a flag officer. In recent years, the Indian Navy has undergone extensive modernization and expansion with an intention to increase its capabilities as a recognized blue-water navy. It is also only one of the six navies in the world that has nuclear capabilities. In addition it is in command of the BrahMos which is the fastest cruise missile in the world with speeds of 2.8 Mach.
Indian Airforce :  The Indian Air Force (IAF) today, having completed more than six decades of dedicated service to the nation, is a modern, technology-intensive force distinguished by its commitment to excellence and professionalism. The Indian Air Force was officially established on 8th October 1932, and on 1st April 1954. With the passage of time, the Indian Air Force undertook massive upgrading of its aircraft and equipments. In recent times however, India has manufactured its own aircraft, including the HAL Tejas, a 4th generation fighter, and the HAL Dhruv, a multi-role helicopter, which has been exported to several countries, including Israel, Burma, Nepal and Ecuador. India also maintains UAV squadrons which can be used to carry out ground attacks and aerial surveillance.
Indian Coast Guard : The Coast Guard (CG) was set up as an Armed Force of the Union in 1978 on recommendations of Rustamji Committee for preservation and protection of our Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The CG is responsible for keeping India’s EEZ measuring over 2.02 million sq. kms. under regular surveillance in order to prevent poaching/ smuggling and other illegal activities in the EEZ. The coast guard works closely with the Indian Navy and the Indian Customs Department, and is usually headed by a naval officer of the rank of Vice-Admiral.
The Primary duty of Indian Coast Guard is:
  • To protect our ocean and offshore wealth including Oil, Fish and Minerals.
  • Protect the artificial Islands and off-shore installations.
  • To assist Mariners in distress and safeguard life and property at sea
  • To enforce Maritime Laws with respect to sea, shipping, poaching, smuggling and narcotics.
  • To preserve marine environment and ecology and to protect rare species.
  • To collect scientific data
  • To assist Indian Navy during war situation
India has the world's 8th largest defense budget. In 2011, India's official military budget stood at $46.8 billion.
The highest wartime gallantry award given by the Military of India is the Param Vir Chakra (PVC), followed by the Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) and the Vir Chakra (VrC). Its peacetime equivalent is the Ashoka Chakra Award. The highest decoration for meritorious service is the Param Vishisht Seva Medal.
History of Indian forces shows that since ancient times a conventional method of warfare was followed. Hence the structure, strength and the policies differed in the various empires, but what remained unaltered, was the undeterred bravery with which the courageous men faced their foes. Indian Armed Forces that are well regarded as the epitome of chivalry, gallantry and intrepidity, is the subcontinent`s guardian against all kinds of intrusions.

                                                                                               I don’t claim the information to be my own. The information is compiled from different sources

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

World's Youngest Film Director

At a time when most children are happy just going to school and playing with simple toys, there's a nine-year old who wants to do something different. Kishan Shrikanth was born on January 6, 1996 and made history in 2005 by directing a full-length Kannda film named ‘Care of Footpath’ which included popular cast crew like Bollywood actor Jackie Shroff and Kannada film industry super-star Sudeep. He is the "Youngest director of a professionally made feature length film" as acknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records (GBWR).
C/o Footpath is a story about a slum boy. He passes class VII in nine years and class X in ten years, without going to school. How he does this is the crux of the story. His parents throw him on the footpath after drugging him. He is woken up by other slum children and taken home by a washerwoman. Produced by his mother, Shailaja Shrikant, the film was dubbed in a number of languages. It was first shot in Kannada and the original version was released on 26 November 2006. It became a big hit in the market and went on to celebrate 100-Days Golden Jubilee.
Kishan Srikanth has been acting since the age of four and has appeared in 24 movies and more than 1,000 TV shows. At an age of 6 years he became a play back singer and has sung in more than three feature films and four private albums. He learnt cinematography and the art of direction during his shooting schedules.   
Master Kishan has directed the movie 'Care of Footpath' at the age of 9 years. One day when he watched street children selling newspapers on the street, he wondered as to why these children were not going to school. He wanted to inspire them and he wrote a story. This story was directed by him. He dedicated this film for all the underprivileged children on this earth.

                                                                                                     I don’t claim the information to be my own. The information is compiled from different sources

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Dara Singh : Rustom - e- Hind

“Khud ko Dara Singh samajhta hai kya?” (You think you are Dara Singh?) That familiar taunt, used frequently even today to sneer at people’s delusions about their physique or strength, draws attention to how the nation saw its most famous pehalwan, or wrestler — a symbol of power, heroism, righteousness and supremacy.

Dara Singh (19 November 1928 – 12 July 2012) was an Indian wrestler-turned-actor from Indian Punjab. He was unquestionably India’s original He-Man. Singh took part in about 500 professional fights, all undefeated, for this,  he won the title of ‘Rustam-E-Punjab’ and ‘Rustam-e-Hind’ and later Rustam-E-Zamaan. He was the first sportsman to be nominated to the Rajya Sabha by Bhartiya Janata Party during August 2003 – August 2009. He has also worked as Hindi and Punjabi film producer, director and writer in his career. He has also been an Indian television actor. Actor Akshay Kumar remarked him as "Hanuman for every kid and the God of all wrestlers, the original action hero who truly inspired me."

Dara Singh was born as Deedar Singh Randhawa to father Surat Singh and mother Balwant Kaur, on 19 November 1928 in Dharmuchak village, Amritsar district in Punjab. Dara Singh married Surjeet Kaur Randhawa in May 1961. They have five children, including actor Vindoo.

Colossal and strikingly handsome, Singh was one of India’s redoubtable wrestlers best remembered for a fight against Australia’s King Kong. In what was one of the most breathtaking fights in the ring, Singh (130 kg) lifted an almost 200kg King Kong of Australia over his head and twirled him around in dramatic fashion. He claimed the World Championship by defeating Lou Thesz of America. As a wrestler, he fought more than 500 professional bouts and remained undefeated in all of them. Singh retired from active wrestling in 1983. In 1996 he was inducted into the Wrestling Observer Newsletter Hall of Fame.

He started his career as an actor in 1952 with Sangdil. In Hindi and Punjabi cinema, he made macho acceptable through more than a hundred films. In 1959, he starred in Jagga Daku. Following a number of such B-grade films, he took to doing character actor roles and achieved success more in mythological hits like Tulsi Vivah, Har Har Mahadev, Bajrangbali, Bhakti Mein Shakti. One of his notable friends was the actress Mumtaz with whom he had performed in 16 Hindi films and had 10 of them as box office hits. His last notable act though was in Imtiaz Ali’s Jab We Met. He carried his image into television as well. His Hanuman in Ramanand Sagar’s epic series Ramayana is the stuff of popular legend. He also produced 8 films and wrote the story for 7 films.

He was admitted in Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital on 7 July 2012 following a cardiac arrest. He was released from hospital on 11 July in deference to the wishes of his family. He died on 12 July 2012 at his home in Mumbai.

He was India's symbol of strength. He was also known for his generous kind nature. Affable to the extreme, he made friends easily and never misused his power even in his heydays. From ring to screen, he won the heart of generations.

                                                                                                  I don’t claim the information to be my own. The information is compiled from different sources

Sunday, July 8, 2012

5 longest Bollywood Movies

Mera Naam Joker - 1970 - 4 hours, 15 minutes
Director by showman Raj Kapoor, the 255-minute film was in the making for almost 6 years after it finally saw light of day. (Originally filmed for 5 hours, MNJ is still the longest Bollywood film). It is also the first Hindi film to have two intervals. But despite heavyweights like Raj Kapoor, Manoj Kumar, Dharmendra, Rajendra Kumar and Simi Garewal, the film failed at the box office. 

LOC - 2003 - 4 hours, 2 minutes
At 242 minutes run-time, the film was not only one of the longest running films in Hindi cinema but also the biggest flops of all times. Made out of a budget of INR 40 crores, the film collected barely INR 19 crores. Even a grand starcast failed to keep the boat from sinking. 
Sangam - 1964 - 3 hours, 58 minutes
Directed By Raj Kapoor (his first color film), with a run time of 238 minutes, this love triangle went on to become a classic.
Jodha Akbar - 2008 - 3 hours, 50 minutes
Despite its run-time, the Asutosh Gowariker-directed film made it to the list of most successful films with box office collections topping INR 59 crores. The 230-minute long film was made out a budget of INR 40 crores.
Lagaan - 2001 - 3 hours, 44 minutes
The Amir-starrer epic made a whopping 38 crores out of a budget of 25 crores landing itself a long inning even at the box office. The film was nominated among Channel Four's '50 Best Films to See Before you Die.' Lagaan also became the highest selling DVD in India, trumping Sholay.


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Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Mahabharata - World's Longest Epic Poem

The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa. With more than 74,000 verses and about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is one of the longest epic poems in the world. It is roughly ten times the size of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, roughly five times longer than Dante's Divine Comedy, and about four times the size of the Ramayana.

The great war of Mahabharata between the Pandavas and the Kauravas happened in 3139 BC. The Pandavas, after winning the Mahabharata war, ruled Hastinapur for 36 years and 8 months until the beginning of Kaliyug in3102 BC. Since the Mahabharata war and the beginning of Kaliyug were important historical events, they have been widely documented in Indian scriptures and frequently referenced by great scholars such as Mahakavi Kalidas, the greatest poet, writer and literary figure of his time and Aryabhatta, the greatest astronomer and mathematician.

Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who, at the request of Vyasa, wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only on condition that Vyasa never pause in his recitation. Vyasa agreed, provided Ganesha took the time to understand what was said before writing it down.

There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are not thought to be appreciably older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the story probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE. The Mahabharata is the longest Sanskrit epic. Its longest version consists of over 100,000 shloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines (each shloka is a couplet), and long prose passages. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata to world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Qur'an.

                                                                                                  I don’t claim the information to be my own. The information is compiled from different sources
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